How CBD Works
Cannbidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of the marijuana plant, has generated significant interest among scientists and physicians in recent years—but how CBD exerts its therapeutic impact on a molecular level is still being sorted out. Cannabidiol is a pleiotropic drug in that it produces many effects through multiple molecular pathways. CBD acts through various receptor-independent channels and by binding with a number of non-cannabinoid receptors and ion channels.
Here are some of the ways that CBD confers its therapeutic effects.
CBD and FAAH
Unlike psychoactive THC, CBD has little binding affinity to either the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Instead, CBD indirectly stimulates endogenous cannabinoid signaling by suppressing the enzyme fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH)—the enzyme that breaks down anandamide, the first endocannabinoid discovered in the mammalian brain in 1992.
Whereas the cannabinoid molecules found in cannabis are considered “exogenous ligands” to the cannabinoid (CB) receptor family, anandamide is an “endogenous” cannabinoid ligand—meaning it binds to one or more cannabinoid receptors and is found naturally inside the mammalian brain and body. Anandamide favors the CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and central nervous system. Because FAAH is involved in the metabolic breakdown of anandamide, less FAAH means more anandamide remains present in the body for a longer duration. More anandamide means greater CB1 activation.
CBD enhances endocannabinoid tone by supressing FAAH.
By inhibiting the enzyme that metabolizes and degrades anandamide, CBD enhances the body’s innate protective endocannabinoid response. At the same time, CBD opposes the action of THC at the CB1 receptor, thereby muting the psychoactive effects of THC.
CBD also stimulates the release of 2-AG, another endocannabinoid that activates both CB1 and CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors are predominant in the peripheral nervous system and the immune system.
The Vanilloid Receptor
While CBD has little binding affinity for either of the two cannabinoid receptors, it has been shown to directly interact with other “G-protein-coupled” receptors and ion channels to confer a therapeutic effect. CBD, for example, binds to the TRPV-1 receptor, which is known to mediate pain perception, inflammation and body temperature.
TRPV is the technical abbreviation for “transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V.” There are several dozen TRP receptor variants or subfamilies that mediate the effects of a wide range of medicinal herbs.
Scientists also refer to TRPV-1 as the “vanilloid receptor,” named after the flavorful vanilla bean. Vanilla contains eugenol, an essential oil that has antiseptic and analgesic properties; it also helps to unclog blood vessels. Historically, the vanilla bean has been used as a folk cure for headaches.
CBD is a TRPV-1 “agonist” or stimulant. This is likely one of the reasons why CBD-rich cannabis is an effective treatment for neuropathic pain.
Capsaicin—the pungent compound in hot chili peppers—activates the TRVP-1 receptor. Anandamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, is also a TRPV-1 agonist.
The Serotonin Receptor
Jose Alexandre Crippa and his colleagues at the University of San Paulo in Brazil and at the King’s College in London have conducted pioneering research into CBD and the neural correlates of anxiety.
At high concentrations, CBD directly activates the 5-HT1A (hydroxytryptamine) serotonin receptor, thereby conferring an anti-depressant effect. This receptor is implicated in a range of biological and neurological processes, including (but not limited to) anxiety, addiction, appetite, sleep, pain perception, nausea and vomiting.
5-HT1A is a member of the family of 5-HT receptors, which are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. Found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, 5-HT receptors trigger various intracellular cascades of chemical messages to produce either an excitatory or inhibitory response, depending on the chemical context of the message.
CBD triggers an inhibitory response that slows down 5-HT1A signaling. In comparison, LSD, mescaline, magic mushrooms, and several other hallucinogenic drugs activate a different type of 5-HT receptor that produces an excitatory response.
The Adenosine Receptor
CBD’s anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) properties may in part be attributable to its activation of the adenosine receptor. Adenosine receptors play significant roles in cardiovascular function, regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow. The adenosine (A2A) receptor has broad anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body.
Adenosine receptors also play a significant role in the brain. They down-regulate the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate.
Whereas cannabidiol activates the TRPV-1 vanilloid receptor, the A2A adenosine receptor, and the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, some studies indicate that CBD functions as an antagonist that blocks, or deactivates, another G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR55.
GPR55 has been dubbed an “orphan receptor” because scientists are still not sure if it belongs to a larger family of receptors.
GPR55 is widely expressed in the brain, especially in the cerebellum. It is involved in modulating blood pressure and bone density, among other physiological processes.
GPR55 promotes osteoclast cell function, which facilitates bone reabsorption. Overactive GPR55 receptor signaling is associated with osteoporosis.
GPR55, when activated, also promotes cancer cell proliferation, according to 2010 study by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai. This receptor is expressed in various types of cancer.
CBD is a GPR55 antagonist, as University of Aberdeen scientist Ruth Ross disclosed at the 2010 conference of the International Cannabinoid Research Society in Lund, Sweden.
By blocking GPR55 signaling, CBD may act to decrease both bone reabsorption and cancer cell proliferation.
CBD also exerts an anti-cancer effect by activating PPARs [peroxisome proliferator activated receptors] that are situated on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. Activation of the receptor known as PPAR-gamma has an anti-proliferative effect as well as an ability to induce tumor regression in human lung cancer cell lines.
PPAR-gamma activation degrades amyloid-beta plaque, a key molecule linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. This is one of the reasons why cannabidiol, a PPAR-gamma agonist, may be a useful remedy for Alzheimer’s patients.
PPAR receptors also regulate genes that are involved in energy homeostasis, lipid uptake, insulin sensitivity, and other metabolic functions. Diabetics, accordingly, may benefit from a CBD-rich treatment regimen.
CBD’s enzyme-mediated activation of the PPAR-alpha receptor may have antipsychotic effects. Polymorphisms or mutations in the gene encoding PPAR-alpha can result in deficient PPAR-alpha signaling, which has been linked to schizophrenia. PPAR-alpha activation is both anti-inflammatory and can decrease dopamine release, thereby minimizing schizophrenic symptoms.
How CBD Is Different From THC – And Its Advantages Over It
Here’s how Cannabidiol is different and more advantageous than THC…
THC and CBD are sitting right at the top of the “cannabinoid” chain in marijuana, but do you know the difference between them? Even though they are both cannabinoids, they have very unique properties which you should be aware of.
We all know about THC and that’s for sure, however, the medical marijuana community has recently started building CBD-rich strains and it’s no coincidence. CBD is a non-psychoactive “miracle” substance that has many medical applications including:
- Anti-psychotic – CBD is the opposite of THC in the mind-altering department and will basically help protect the psychotic effects of THC.
- Focus – CBD can also help people concentrate and focus.
- Anti-oxidant – similar to green tea, CBD has an anti-oxidant effect, which basically means that it prevents oxidation of other parts in our bodies and absorbs free radicals.
- Anti-anxiety – while THC is know to cause anxiety in some people, we know for a fact that CBD can reduce this feeling if administered on its own.
- Natural sleep – so many people suffer from insomnia nowadays and it’s nothing more than a mental issue. So, you know very well that marijuana is a miracle medicine when it comes to dealing with insomnia. Due to CBD’s anti-anxiety effects, it can really help emulate the natural sleep you’ve been craving for so long.
Believe it or not, those are just a fraction of the medical properties this amazing chemical has. Recent studies have also confirmed it to be effective in the treatment of epileptic seizures and the best part about CBD is that it is legal in many places unlike its “cousin” THC. For instance, many states in the U.S. still have no medical marijuana program established, however, they do have a CBD medical program up and running.
Cannabis Is In Your DNA
The nutritional and healing powers of fresh raw Cannabis is one of of the best kept secrets of the last century. Because Cannabis is, essentially, a wonder plant, it was only a matter of time before the anti-cannabis propaganda machine would fall apart. That is what is happening today. This video calls out the “authorities” who do nothing but harm the public for enrichment and corruption of the state.
Stem Cells & PRP – Dr. Marc Darrow
This video features Dr. Marc Darrow, MD on the TV show, “Strange Medicine”, with Dr. Juan Rivera. Dr. Darrow discusses the incredible healing benefits of Prolotherapy in the form of Stem Cells and PRP, as an alternative to surgery. He can be reached at 310-231-7000 or http://www.StemCellInstitute.com.
Dr. Darrow graduated from Northwestern University, and has a Medical degree from the University of Hawaii. He completed his Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residency at the University of California School of Medicine. After college, Dr. Darrow completed a Doctorate in Jurisprudence from Golden Gate University College of Law in San Francisco, as well as a Masters of Business Taxation from the University of Southern California (and actually practiced law for 15 years prior to his medical career). He is and Assistant Clinical Professor at UCLA School of Medicine where he teaches these therapies.
After several sports injuries, Dr. Darrow was healed by self-injections of Prolotherapy (short for proliferation therapy”) which promotes rapid, and prolific, growth of cartilage, and collagen, the structural protein of the body. By rejuvenating injured or worn connective tissue, musculoskeletal pain can be reduced or eliminated.
After realizing the healing potential of the then little-known Prolotherapy, Dr. Darrow devoted his regenerative medicine practice to many thousands of patients suffering from debilitating pain. Dr. Darrow has becoming a leading expert and teacher of Stem Cell Prolotherapy, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Prolotherapy for treating conditions from head to foot, including advanced bone on bone osteoarthritis. He finds it unnecessary to refer patients for elective musculoskeletal surgery, and uses the by-line “Take the Surgery Out Of Pain” on his KRLA weekly radio shows.
Adult stem cells are extracted from the patient’s own body and used to create a healing solution containing platelet-rich plasma and stem cells. Once injected into degenerated joints and ligaments, your own newly activated stem cells go to work causing a dynamic self-repair response on the cellular level.
Adult Stem Cell Therapy has the potential to provide joint, tendon, ligament, and muscle regeneration, and is the next frontier for Prolotherapy and PRP. Treat painful back and joint problems with Adult Stem Cell Therapy.
Marijuana is not illegal because it’s dangerous; it’s only dangerous because it’s illegal.
It’s time to take marijuana off the black market, end crime and violence related to marijuana trafficking, stop wasting money and ruining lives by prosecuting victimless crimes, reduce prison populations, increase tax revenue, allow sick people their medicine, let farmers grow marijuana and hemp, and give responsible adults their freedom.
Stand with Dr. Jill Stein to legalize marijuana now!
As a medical doctor and public health advocate, people ask me all the time if marijuana is dangerous.
Yes, marijuana is dangerous – because it’s illegal. It’s not inherently dangerous. It’s certainly less harmful than alcohol and tobacco, which are perfectly legal.
The real danger of marijuana is the violence of the underground drug economy created by prohibition.
Legalizing marijuana will end that violence, much like ending alcohol prohibition ended the violence of the illegal alcohol economy.
It’s time to take marijuana off the black market, end crime and violence related to marijuana trafficking, stop wasting money and ruining lives by prosecuting victimless crimes, reduce prison populations, increase tax revenue, allow sick people their medicine, let farmers grow marijuana and hemp, and give responsible adults their freedom by legalizing it!
As President, one of my first actions would be to order the DEA and the Justice Department to cease and desist all attempts to harass or prosecute medical marijuana clinics or other legitimate marijuana-related businesses that are operating under state laws.
I would also direct DEA to remove marijuana from Schedule 1, the most dangerous category of drugs, and place it in a more appropriate category as determined by medical science.
Twenty-four states and the District of Columbia currently have laws legalizing marijuana in some form. Four states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana for recreational use.
Since the first retail marijuana stores opened on January 1st, 2014, the state of Colorado has benefited from a decrease in crime rates, a decrease in traffic fatalities, an increase in tax revenue and economic output from retail marijuana sales, and an increase in jobs.
And hundreds of thousands of patients suffering from chronic pain and cancers are benefiting from the availability of medical marijuana under state laws.
Like Colorado, we can regulate marijuana in a similar way to alcohol once it’s legal.
This would prevent billions of dollars in profits from pouring into the black market, and would greatly reduce the violence associated with illegal marijuana sales, including the drug wars ravaging Mexico and Central America.
It just makes sense. Help me build the movement for legalization – sign and share my call to legalize marijuana nationwide today!
Make no mistake, ending marijuana prohibition would be a huge win for freedom and social justice, and a major step towards the just, Green future we deserve.
It’s in our hands!
-Dr. Jill Stein, April 20, 2016
ANONYMOUS: Cannabis Cures Cancer! — CBD
BRINGING IT HOME: Industrial Hemp Solutions
BRINGING IT HOME – Industrial Hemp: Jobs, Fuel, Food, Health, Housing, Paper, Textiles, Auto Parts, Livestock Feed are all possibilities of this miracle plant.
This video is about a father’s search to find the healthiest building materials that leads him to the completion of the nation’s first hemp house. Hemp with lime is a non-toxic, energy efficient, mildew, fire and pest resistant building material. The drawback — industrial hemp is currently illegal to farm in the U.S.A. Industrial hemp is a non-psychoactive plant, grown in 31 other countries that makes 1,000’s of sustainable products and offers solutions for global warming, nutrition, poverty and deforestation. Here in the U.S., hemp could be a money-making crop for farmers and create jobs. But why can’t we grow it here? BRINGING IT HOME tells the story of hemp: past, present and future and a global industry that includes textiles, building materials, food products, bio-plastics, auto parts and more.
More industrial hemp is exported to the U.S. than to any other country and American consumers are purchasing over $450 million in hemp products annually. BRINGING IT HOME explores the question of why a crop with so many widespread benefits cannot be farmed in the United States by illustrating its history, current industries and talking to both opponents and proponents of the industrial hemp farming legalization effort.
BRINGING IT HOME tells the story of hemp’s past, present and future through interviews with hemp business leaders and entrepreneurs from all over the globe, historical images and media clips, and footage filmed in the U.K, Spain, Washington D.C., California and North Carolina. The documentary aims to magnify dialogue about hemp in order to facilitate America’s transition to a more informed, sustainable, and healthy future.
The film was inspired by environmentally-conscious home designer Anthony Brenner’s story to find the healthiest building material available to build a safe indoor environment for his young daughter Bailey, who has a rare genetic disorder and sensitivity to synthetic chemicals. Anthony made headlines in USA Today and CNN when he completed “America’s First Hemp House” for the former mayor of Asheville, North Carolina. Anthony’s story is one of the inspirational tales profiled in this film that provides viewers with a new connection to the issue of toxicity in human habitats and how hemp can play a role in innovative healthy green building solutions. In Bringing it Home, we follow Anthony’s mission to build The Bird’s Nest, the world’s first hempcrete built, toxin-free residential home for his daughter and other children and adults with disabilities.
A major drawback for Anthony and other U.S. builders using hemp is that the fiber must be imported. We followed the hemp trail of the Asheville house to England where we spoke with hemp business owners and facilities, filmed hemp farms and commercial structures. We meet Kevin McCloud, the popular designer, author and TV host of Grand Designs who developed a hemp townhouse neighborhood in Swindon. We interviewed researcher Dr. Michael Lawrence at the University of Bath’s “HemPod” research structure who talks about the humidity regulating and carbon absorbing benefits of hemp construction. West of London, Mike Giffin, Farm consultant with Hemp Technology, takes us “in the field” to discuss the benefits of hemp as an agricultural crop. We learn about hemp foods and nutrition from Henry Braham, hemp farmer and founder of GOOD Oil in the U.K.
Additional interviews with experts filmed at the 2nd International Hemp Building Symposium in Granada, Spain speak to global hemp industries and uses worldwide, and we visit a Spanish architect and her family in their hemp (Cannabric) home and holiday apartments near Almeria. In Washington, D.C. we try to keep up with energetic Ben Droz, legislative liaison for Vote Hemp as he works the corridors of Capitol Hill trying to gain sponsors and support for the Industrial Hemp Farming Act and we visit Capitol Hemp — a retail store featuring hemp clothing and products. Eric Steenstra, with Vote Hemp and HIA shares insights into current U.S. legislative efforts and outreach to the White House.
In California, American hemp business CEO’s David and Mike Bronner of Dr. Bronner’s Magic Soaps and John Roulac of Nutiva discuss how hemp products built their million dollar companies. In Sacramento we sit down with John Lovell, lobbyist for the CA Narcotics Officers Association to hear the opposition to legalizing hemp farming.
Back in North Carolina, we spend time with eco-couture designer Stephanie Teague who uses organic hemp fabrics from China while making a home in Greensboro, NC where textile industries once employed many. Farmers in Silk Hope, NC hear about hemp’s agricultural benefits and voice their support for bringing this crop back to American farms where it used to grow.
Hemp’s role in world and American history is treated through lively animation and brief segments using archival imagery to discuss the importance of hemp during Colonial times through the World War II era and it’s eventual classification as a substance one narcotic, even though the oil, seed and fiber varieties of industrial hemp cannot be used as a drug.
Please contribute to BRINGING IT HOME’s outreach campaign! Make an online donation today, and support our efforts to educate people about hemp, healthier homes, and a greener future for America.
NOTICE: For in-depth legislative, political, business and economic-oriented benefit information please be sure to purchase the full video on DVD below:
Donate to the cause:
Here is the 15-minute YouTube version…
The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer (e-book)
WILD AND FREE (A Fire Burns for Freedom) Lyrics
by Ziggy Marley
A fire burns for freedom
A fire burns for freedom
The smell of decent is I
I am standing for the truth
Too long has been denied
The data of changing is rising
I hope we realize
Unchained wings let angels fly
I see hemp fields forever
Growing wild and free
I see marijuana trees blowing in our breeze
I see hemp fields forever growing wild and free
Wild and free
A crime against nations
A war is waged there is a message
In the wind for every race
Peace and love we saw
So let us grow is good for the body
Is good for the soul
So lost the kiss of death
Deny the tree of life
Stand hypocrisy for so many lies
Corporation greed can only see small farmers survive by planting weed
Crucified savior to save your face
Demonized nature our saving grace
We got to put to good use
What the lord has gave
Fruits of the tree herbs of the fields
KEYWORDS: Industrial Hemp, Cannabis, Bringing It Home Movie, Sick Building Syndrome, Anthony Brenner, Linda Booker, Blaire Johnson, Hemp Building Association, Sustainable Housing, Sustainability, Non-Psychoactive Plants, Marijuana, Pakalolo, THC, TetraHydroCannabinol, Hemporium, Dr Bronners, The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer, Hemp for Victory, Hempcrete